Reducing Emissions from Open Burning through Biomass Gasification

Principal Investigator:

Will Northrop, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering

Project Summary:

Minnesota forests produce 2.4 million tons of wood waste per year. A significant fraction of that biomass is burned in open piles resulting in harmful pollution, generating unnecessary carbon dioxide emissions and wasting energy. The Minnesota DNR estimates that 35,000 tons of piled woody biomass was burned in Southwest MN this winter alone emitting approximately 128,000 tons of CO2. This project proposes distributed gasification for combined heat and power as an alternative to open burning of wood waste in Minnesota. Large-scale, high efficiency gasification systems have been demonstrated in regions of MN with high agricultural intensity. However, large-scale gasification is too expensive for wood waste produced over a large geographic area due to collection and transportation costs. Our hypothesis is that small-scale (less than 50 kW) gasification systems can produce energy from wood waste nearer to its source, improving the economics of gasification while reducing emissions of pollutants and reducing reliance on fossil sources of energy like propane that have high price fluctuation. State parks are ideal sites for distributed gasification due to their low energy use and remote location. We will measure emissions from a donated gasifier-generator system from All Power Labs at the University of Minnesota (UMN) Engine Research Facility during the first year of the project. The system will then operate on dried wood chips in the DNRa??s Regional Office Facility in New Ulm, MN augmenting their newly installed photovoltaic array providing electricity during times of peak energy demand. The system will be returned to UMN at the end of the project. This two year program has the potential to have significant impact in Minnesota by illustrating the benefits of small-scale distributed gasification to avoid open burning of woody biomass while saving energy and reducing emissions.

Project Details:

  • Start date: 07/2015
  • Project Status: Completed
  • Research Area: Environment and Energy
  • Topics: Environment